Health Module 2
Child Health and Safety, First Aid Kits,
and Acute First Aid and Guidelines
Head Start will adhere to the following guidelines to support a healthy
environment and establish the following procedures in response to a center’s
accidents, medical and dental emergencies. The following topics to be discussed
First Aids Kits and Supplies
Acute First Aid and Guidelines
Center Accident Reports
Health Special Risk Inc. (HSR insurance form)
Health Specialist will review the following information with site mangers and
staff annually at the beginning of each year and when indicated.
All HEAD START Centers will have a
main First Aid kit. This kit will be kept in the site manager
office. The Health Specialist will re-stock the MAIN First Aid kit on a monthly
basis based on inventory.
Each classroom will have a tackle box First Aid kit to be kept inside the
classroom closet, out of the children’s reach. The Health Assistant will
re-stock the tackle box classroom First Aid kits on a monthly basis based on
inventory. The Health staff will check the expiration dates and replace any used
or out-of-date supplies as needed.
Each Teacher or Teacher Assistant
will wear a fanny pack furnished with First Aid supplies to be taken on the
playground, any outdoor activities and/or any field trips. The Teacher or
Teacher Assistant will be responsible for re-stocking the First Aid supplies in
their fanny packs from supplies available in their tackle box classroom First
Main First Aid Kit - HS Center
Tackle Box First Aid Kit - HS
Fanny Packs - Worn by Teacher(s)/Teacher
FIRST AID KIT (CENTERS)
The following items are in the center’s First Aid Kit.
A list of the First Aid kit supplies should be
attached to the inside of the Center’s First Aid Kit for quick reference when
checking for needed supplies. The Health Specialist will check the center’s
main first Aid Kit and restock when indicated.
1) FIRST AID
BAND-AIDS (3/4” AND 1”)
LIQUID DIAL SOAP (for First Aid
FIRST AID BOOK
GAUZE PADS (2” X 2” AND 4” X 4”)
EYE IRRIGATOR + SOLUTION
INSTANT COLD PACK
TWEEZERS PLASTIC BAGS
FIRST AID KIT/FANNY PACKS (CLASSROOMS)
The following items are required for the tackle box (small first aid kit) in the
classrooms. Teachers should stock their fanny packs from the supplies in the
tackle boxes. The Health Assistant will monitor and replace health supplies
when requested by center staff. There will be re-useable ice packs for each
classroom in the center. Each ice pack will be label (#1, #2) and stored in the
AID KIT/FANNY PACKS (CLASSROOMS)
BAND-AIDS (3/4” AND 1”) – 20 EACH
2 SETS OF DISPOSABLE GLOVES
GAUZE PADS (2” X 2” AND 4” X 4”) – 4 EACH SIZE
10 TEMPRA DOTS
1 HAND SANITIZER
ACUTE FIRST AID AND GUIDELINES
These medical procedure charts have been designed to aid staff in managing
potentially dangerous or troublesome situations in the Head Start Centers. The
steps are presented in concise situation outline without unnecessary details
that can be distracting during an emergency.
When a medical situation occurs
Take a deep breath. Read these instructions. With all health situations,
except cardiac arrest or respiratory failure, one or two minutes spent getting
the situation under control will improve effectiveness.
Look up the major problem in the Contents. If a serious emergency occurs that not listed, the best
procedure is to obtain emergency or medical assistance from the Health Staff or EMS,
unless you are very familiar with the problem and its management.
Provide only the care outlined in these charts
unless you are a trained in emergency procedures or you receive instructions for
additional care from a health care professional.
Use common sense
with these charts; only you know your particular situation. The primary rule of
first aid is to cause no further injury.
Most important during any medical emergency – Remember
Make sure the airway is unobstructed. Make sure the person is
breathing. Check for circulation and the pulse.
**THESE PROCEDURES ARE MEANT TO BE
COMFORT STEPS USED TO SOOTH THE CHILD UNTIL HE/SHE IS PICKED UP BY THE PARENT/
GUARDIAN. FIRST AID BEGINS WITH ACTION AND ACTIVITY. THE FIRST AIDER SHOULD
ASSURE THE PERSON THAT HE/SHE IS BEING HELPED.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Presence of a puncture and/or open wound, e.g. tear or laceration of the skin.
Bleeding, pain, soreness, redness or swelling may be present at the wound site.
a) Wash the wound thoroughly and repeatedly
with soap and water for at least 10 minutes and rinse well. Apply sterile
dressing if needed.
b) If bleeding heavily, apply direct pressure
with the palm of the hand over the wound dressing.
c) Take the child for medical treatment. If
possible take the child’s immunization record with date of last tetanus vaccine.
d) If animal bite, contact the City Health
Department Animal Control with the following information to aid in the capture
of the animal:
Child’s name, address, race, sex,
age, and telephone number
Time of the incident
Description of the injury site
Emergency care administered
Description of the animal and the
owner’s name and address, if known
DETAIN ANIMAL IF POSSIBLE. DO
NOT KILL THE ANIMAL.
BITES & STINGS (INSECTS)
Quickly determine whether the person is experiencing a serious reaction to the
site. If an allergic reaction occurs call 911.
Emergency Allergic Reaction
Breathing difficulty or
wheezing, faintness, hives, blotches, red, swollen eyes, nausea/vomiting, and
diarrhea. Serious allergic reactions occur within 5 - 10 minutes.
Local irritation with a swelling, redness, or itching at the sting site.
Associated pain or swelling of a joint or body part may be present.
Situations not requiring EMS
Keep the child quiet and calm.
Keep the area below heart level if on an extremity.
Do not squeeze the stinger out. If there is a stinger in the skin, try
to remove it by wiping a card over the area.
Apply cold compresses for 15 - 20 minutes.
Observe the child for any allergic reaction. If necessary, seek medical
Fill out Center Accident report and
(CUTS & ABRASIONS)
Any sign of cut(s) or scrape(s) of the skin with bleeding and pain. Foreign
material such as grass, dirt, rocks, etc. may be present in the wound.
Reassure the child and have him/her lie or sit in a comfortable position.
Wash the wound or soak thoroughly with soap and water and rinse
repeatedly to cleanse area of any foreign material for at least 10 minutes. Do
not remove imbedded material, e.g. glass, from the wound. Notify parents and
refer for medical assistance.
Cover the wound with a sterile dressing if needed.
If bleeding heavily, apply direct pressure with the palm of the hand on
the wound dressing.
Refer the child for medical care if:
The child’s tetanus immunization
is not up-to-date
The wound is very deep, dirty, or
has foreign matter imbedded
There are signs of infection, e.g.
redness, swelling, soreness, etc.
Fill out Center Accident report and notify parents
Follow-up within 2 days, document and observed for signs of infection.
If “scab” formed, do not remove. Maintain good hygiene. Keep area dry/ cover
with Band-Aid if necessary.
5) BLEEDING (NOSEBLEED/FOREIGN OBJECTS
IN THE NOSE)
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS/BLEEDING
Spontaneous bleeding from the nose, which may be related to a head or face
injury or changes in the environmental humidity.
Have the child sit in an upright position, leaning slightly forward and
breathing by mouth.
Have the child or assist the child to pinch the nostrils together firmly
with thumb and forefinger using soft thick tissues or cloths. Do not squeeze
hard enough to cause damage or pain.
Apply constant pressure for 5 - 10 minutes.
Have the child continue to breath by mouth and avoid talking, physical
activities or blowing nose for one hour.
The child should have medical care if you suspect a fracture of the nose,
or if the bleeding is uncontrolled.
Treat the child for shock if there is excessive bleeding or suspected
Notify parents of nose bleed and
fill out accident report if indicated.
OBJECTS IN THE NOSE
Complaint of obstruction of the nostril. Other symptoms may
be nasal drainage or swelling of the nose.
Have the child to blow the nose moderately into a tissue or cloth with
both nostrils open.
Seek medical care, if foreign material does not come out.
Notify parent and fill out center accident report if indicated
Pain with collection of fluid under the skin usually as a
result of the skin being irritated or rubbed.
Leave blisters unbroken.
Wash area gently with soap and water.
Apply Band-Aid to protect form further irritation.
IF THE BLISTER IS BROKEN, TREAT AS AN OPEN WOUND AND COVER WITH A BANDAID.
bruise is an injury as the result of a blow to the body, which does not break
the skin, but, causes pain, swelling and discoloration. Redness of the skin at
the injury site may be present initially. This may become blue or black and
much later brownish yellow.
Medical care is necessary if there is a large injury site, related head
injury, or deformity over a bone or joint. Treat a deformity as for fracture.
If seen immediately following an injury: apply a covered ice bag to the
injury site to reduce swelling and bleeding into the tissue.
Elevate injured arm or leg to reduce swelling if present.
Fill out center accident report and notify parents.
Inform Child Protective Services if violence or child abuse is suspected.
First-degree burns have redness of the skin, pain and may be mild, with swelling
at injury site. Second Degree burns have deep reddening of the skin. Skin has
a glossy appearance, blisters; leaking fluid from possible loss of skin.
Third-degree burns have loss of all skin layers and are painless with possible
white or charred skin.
For first or second-degree burns, soak in cool (or running) water or use
cold wet compresses to burn area for 10 - 15 minutes.
Do not apply cold water or wet compresses to third-degree burns.
If possible, leave first-degree burns uncovered, or cover with sterile
moist dressing. Cover all second or third-degree burns loosely with
Do not break or open blisters of burns.
Do not use butter, oil, etc. on burns.
Refer for medical care for extensive burns and all third degree burns
Notify parents and fill out an accident report if the occurrence happens
at the center.
h) Inform Child Protective Services if
violence or child abuse is suspected.
Involuntary jerking of
muscles, possible loss of bowel and bladder control, possible loss of
consciousness, or cessation of breathing.
Do not move the child unless it is an unsafe area. Remove potentially
harmful objects (e.g. furniture) from the area.
Do not restrain the child or try to put anything into the child’s mouth
or between the teeth.
Do not give the child anything to eat or drink.
Time the seizure. If this is a first time seizure (no history) call 911.
Give rescue breathing
(artificial respiration) if the child stops breathing for more than 2 minutes.
After the seizure stops, apply cool cloth to the child’s face and provide
area for undisturbed sleep.
If the seizure lasts longer than 10 minutes, becomes worse, or different,
or is followed by another seizure immediately (<2 minutes), call EMR and obtain
emergency medical assistance.
Notify parents of seizure activity and document in the Health Record.
11) EARACHES/FOREIGN OBJECTS IN THE EAR
Painful and draining ear or
feeling of fullness in the ear canal. May have other symptoms, i.e., hearing
loss, “cold”, injury to the ear or head, nausea, vomiting or abdominal pain or
object in the ear. Fever may or may not be present.
Make child as comfortable as possible by having him/her lie down with the
head turned to the earache side.
Advise parent/guardian to seek medical care.
If fever is present, notify parents and instruct them to pick child home
and advise them to seek medical care.
12) FOREIGN OBJECTS IN THE EAR
Ear pain and/or feeling of fullness in the ear canal. Other symptoms may be
hearing loss and a history of placing an object in the ear canal.
Make the child comfortable and provide reassurance.
Do not attempt to remove anything from the ear canal. Only a health care
provider or physician should remove foreign objects in the outer ear.
Advise parent/guardian to seek medical care.
Pain or soreness of the throat
when swallowing, speaking or eating. Additional symptoms may include nasal
drainage, enlarged neck glands, fever, cough, headache, hoarseness, or injury to
the mouth, throat, or neck.
Take the child’s temperature. If she/he does not have a
temperature of 100.4° F or above, the child may stay in the Center.
If child does have temperature of 100.4°F or above, keep him/her
at home and seek medical care.
Have child gargle with warm salt water (½ teaspoon salt in an 8-ounce
glass of water).
Have child to rest quietly and encourage fluids.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Foreign material embedded in
the skin usually relating to a minor injury. Other symptoms may include
redness, swelling and/or pain at the injury site.
If splinter can be easily
removed (splinter part is above the
skin surface) grasp splinter with a tweezer and gently remove. Clean area with
soap and water after removal and apply dressing.
Clean the area with soap and water, and apply dressing, if splinter is
deeply imbedded and splinter part is not above the skin surface. Do not
attempt to remove the splinter.
Advise parent to seek medical care.
Abdominal pain or discomfort. May have related cramping, bloating, gas,
diarrhea or constipation, nausea and vomiting. Causes of upset stomach (nausea
and vomiting) usually are not serious. Ask the child about other symptoms or
conditions and about amount, consistency, and color of vomit. Fever may or may
not be present.
Ask about additional signs and symptoms - i.e., headache, earache, sore throat,
injury to chest, head or stomach, diabetes, high temperature, dietary intake,
and stressful events.
Assist child to become more comfortable by lying down on side with knees bent to
relax stomach muscles.
b.) Take the child’s temperature when the
c.) If pain persists (> 20 minutes), inform
parent of child symptoms and inform parents with an option to pick the child up
from the center.
d.) If fever is present, instruct parent to
seek medical attention.
16) VOMITING/THROWING UP
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
voluntary or involuntary emptying of the stomach contents through the mouth.
Identify the contents of the vomit (food, blood, etc.)
If blood is present, call the parents, Nurse Practitioners or Emergency Medical
Give nothing to eat or drink until vomiting stops.
Allow the child to rest and check the child for improvement.
Seek medical evaluation based on symptoms if necessary.
f) Keep the child calm
g) If symptoms persist,
instruct parents to pick child up and refer for medical treatment.
Teachers are required to provide
their own fanny packs.
2) What procedure would you use in case of a
Have child blow his/her nose.
Have child lean with head going back.
Have child sit upright and lean forward, breathing by mouth.
If an object is embedded in the wound, you should remove the object.
4) What is the temperature that requires you
to send a child home?
5) How many hours does a child have to be
fever free before returning to the center?
Only a health care provider or physician should remove a foreign object from the outer ear.
Butter, petroleum jelly, and ointment should always be used to treat burns.
After completing this instrument, provide your Staff ID number, click you work
"content area" and "job location". Forward to the Training Department. Your name
is verification that you have read and understood the content of this module
and have completed this learning program in good faith, and are
willing to practice the principles outlined.