Developmental Milestones: Module 2 
3 years, 4 years, and 5 years of age

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From CARING FOR YOUR BABY AND YOUNG CHILD: BIRTH TO AGE 5 by Steven Shelov, Robert E. Hannermann, 1991, 1993, 1998, 2004 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.  http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/ActEarly/milestones_3months.html


Successful completion of this Programmed Learning Packet will provide you with 30 minutes of training.
Objectives:
  • Caregiver can recognize and identify developmental milestones as regards social/emotional, movement, vision and speech/hearing of three month, seven month, one year, and two year old children.
  • Caregiver can identify developmental delays in children 3 through 5 years of age.

Developmental Milestones: 3 years of age  (36 months)

Children develop at their own pace, so it's impossible to tell exactly when yours will learn a given skill. The developmental milestones below will give you a general idea of the changes you can expect as your child gets older, but don't be alarmed if your child takes a slightly different course.

Social
  • Imitates adults and playmates
  • Spontaneously shows affection for familiar playmates
  • Can take turns in games
  • Understands concept of "mine" and "his/hers"

 

Language
  • Follows a two- or three-part command
  • Recognizes and identifies almost all common objects and pictures
  • Understands most sentences
  • Understands placement in space ("on," "in," "under")
  • Uses 4- to 5-word sentences
  • Can say name, age, and sex
  • Uses pronouns (I, you, me, we, they) and some plurals (cars, dogs, cats)
  • Strangers can understand most of her words
Emotional
  • Expresses affection openly
  • Expresses a wide range of emotions
  • By 3, separates easily from parents
  • Objects to major changes in routine

 

Movement
  • Climbs well
  • Walks up and down stairs, alternating feet (one foot per stair step)
  • Kicks ball
  • Runs easily
  • Pedals tricycle
  • Bends over easily without falling
Cognitive
  • Makes mechanical toys work
  • Matches an object in her hand or room to a picture in a book
  • Plays make-believe with dolls, animals, and people
  • Sorts objects by shape and color
  • Completes puzzles with three or four pieces
  • Understands concept of "two"
Hand and Finger Skills
  • Makes up-and-down, side-to-side, and circular lines with pencil or crayon
  • Turns book pages one at a time
  • Builds a tower of more than six blocks
  • Holds a pencil in writing position
  • Screws and unscrews jar lids, nuts, and bolts
  • Turns rotating handles
Developmental Health Watch
Alert your child's doctor or nurse if your child displays any of the following signs of possible developmental delay for this age range.
  • Frequent falling and difficulty with stairs
  • Persistent drooling or very unclear speech
  • Cannot build a tower of more than four blocks
  • Difficulty manipulating small objects
  • Cannot copy a circle by age 3
  • Cannot communicate in short phrases
  • No involvement in "pretend" play
  • Does not understand simple instructions
  • Little interest in other children
  • Extreme difficulty separating from mother or primary caregiver
  • Poor eye contact
  • Limited interest in toys
  • Experiences a dramatic loss of skills he or she once

Developmental Milestones: 4 years of age (48 months)

Children develop at their own pace, so it's impossible to tell exactly when yours will learn a given skill. The developmental milestones below will give you a general idea of the changes you can expect as your child gets older, but don't be alarmed if your child takes a slightly different course.

Social

  • Interested in new experiences
  • Cooperates with other children
  • Plays "Mom" or "Dad"
  • Increasingly inventive in fantasy play
  • Dresses and undresses
  • Negotiates solutions to conflicts
  • More independent

Language

  • Has mastered some basic rules of grammar
  • Speaks in sentences of five to six words
  • Speaks clearly enough for strangers to understand
  • Tells stories

Emotional

  • Imagines that many unfamiliar images may be "monsters"
  • Views self as a whole person involving body, mind, and feelings
  • Often cannot tell the difference between fantasy and reality
 

Movement

  • Hops and stands on one foot up to five seconds
  • Goes upstairs and downstairs without support
  • Kicks ball forward
  • Throws ball overhand
  • Catches bounced ball most of the time
  • Moves forward and backward with agility

Cognitive

  • Correctly names some colors
  • Understands the concept of counting and may know a few numbers
  • Tries to solve problems from a single point of view
  • Begins to have a clearer sense of time
  • Follows three-part commands
  • Recalls parts of a story
  • Understands the concepts of "same" and "different"
  • Engages in fantasy play

Hand and Finger Skills

  • Copies square shapes
  • Draws a person with two to four body parts
  • Uses scissors
  • Draws circles and squares
  • Begins to copy some capital letters
 
Developmental Health Watch
Alert your child's doctor or nurse if your child displays any of the following signs of possible developmental delay for this age range.
  • Cannot throw a ball overhand
  • Cannot jump in place
  • Cannot ride a tricycle
  • Cannot grasp a crayon between thumb and fingers
  • Has difficulty scribbling
  • Cannot stack four blocks
  • Still clings or cries whenever parents leave
  • Shows no interest in interactive games
  • Ignores other children
  • Doesn't respond to people outside the family
  • Doesn't engage in fantasy play
  • Resists dressing, sleeping, using the toilet
  • Lashes out without any self-control when angry or upset
  • Cannot copy a circle
  • Doesn't use sentences of more than three words
  • Doesn't use "me" and "you" correctly
  • Experiences a dramatic loss of skills he or she once

Developmental Milestones: 5 years of age (60 months)

Children develop at their own pace, so it's impossible to tell exactly when yours will learn a given skill. The developmental milestones below will give you a general idea of the changes you can expect as your child gets older, but don't be alarmed if your child takes a slightly different course.

Social
  • Wants to please friends
  • Wants to be like her friends
  • More likely to agree to rules
  • Likes to sing, dance, and act
  • Shows more independence and may even visit a next-door neighbor by herself
Language
  • Recalls part of a story
  • Speaks sentences of more than five words
  • Uses future tense
  • Tells longer stories
  • Says name and address
Emotional Milestones
  • Aware of gender
  • Able to distinguish fantasy from reality
  • Sometimes demanding, sometimes eagerly cooperative

 

Movement
  • Stands on one foot for 10 seconds or longer
  • Hops, somersaults
  • Swings, climbs
  • May be able to skip
Cognitive Milestones
  • Can count 10 or more objects
  • Correctly names at least four colors
  • Better understands the concept of time
  • Knows about things used every day in the home (money, food, appliances)

 

Hand and Finger Skills
  • Copies triangle and other shapes
  • Draws person with body
  • Prints some letters
  • Dresses and undresses without help
  • Uses fork, spoon, and (sometimes) a table knife
  • Usually cares for own toilet needs
Developmental Health Watch
Alert your child's doctor or nurse if your child displays any of the following signs of possible developmental delay for this age range.
  • Acts extremely fearful or timid
  • Acts extremely aggressively
  • Is unable to separate from parents without major protest
  • Is easily distracted and unable to concentrate on any single activity for more than five minutes
  • Shows little interest in playing with other children
  • Refuses to respond to people in general, or responds only superficially
  • Rarely uses fantasy or imitation in play
  • Seems unhappy or sad much of the time
  • Doesn't engage in a variety of activities
  • Avoids or seems aloof with other children and adults
  • Doesn't express a wide range of emotions
  • Has trouble eating, sleeping, or using the toilet
  • Can't tell the difference between fantasy and reality
  • Seems unusually passive
  • Cannot understand two-part commands using prepositions ("Put the doll on the bed, and get the ball under the couch.")
  • Can't correctly give her first and last name
  • Doesn't use plurals or past tense properly when speaking
  • Doesn't talk about her daily activities and experiences
  • Cannot build a tower of six to eight blocks
  • Seems uncomfortable holding a crayon
  • Has trouble taking off clothing
  • Cannot brush her teeth efficiently
  • Cannot wash and dry her hands
  • Experiences a dramatic loss of skills he or she once

Test Questions:

1    Understanding placement in space ("on," "in," "under") is developmentally appropriate for 3 year olds.

 True

 False

2.    Sorting objects by shape and color is developmentally appropriate for 3 year olds.           

 True

 False

 3.    Going upstairs and downstairs without support  would be a realistic expectation of a normal 4 year old.  

 True

 False

 4.     Dressing and undressing without help would be a realistic expectation of a child by their 4th birthday. 

 True

 False

 5.     Screwing and unscrewing jar lids, nuts, and bolts are behaviors we would not expect to see in a child until they reach 5 years of age.      

 True

 False

 6.    Knowing about things used every day in the home, such as, money, food, and appliances is something we would  not expect to see in a child until they reach 5 years of age.       

 True

 False


After completing this instrument, provide your Staff ID number, click you work "content area" and "job location". Forward to the Training Department. Your name is verification that you have read and understood the content of this module and have completed this learning program in good faith, and are willing to practice the principles outlined.

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Developmental Milestones: Module 2 

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